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The Importance of Organizational Behavior In any organization one can assume that the main goal of that business is to succeed; what exactly does being a winning organization mean and what does it take to get there? In the past companies placed a great amount of emphasis on the numbers and how to achieve those numbers. The people who actually helped achieve those numbers were graded on their technical skills, productivity, and budgets. Employees were moneymaking machines and how they achieved those numbers was not a concern of their managers as long as the numbers were being met. Organizational behavior studies have become more important today than in previous years because corporations must learn to adapt to the rapidly changingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Organizational Behavior or as I call it - Discipline principles is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organizatio nÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness (Robbins, S. 2001). Organizational Behavior studies three main areas in order to help organizations work more effectively; they are individuals, groups, and structure. Everyone and everything in an organization makes an impact on the way an organization functions, therefore knowing what makes your employee Ã¢â¬Å"tickÃ¢â¬ is a key factor in success. In an organization an employee is expected to have skills pertaining to the specific job description. Hiring a ballet dancer to play hockey is not only absurd but also non productive. Technical skills, depending on the position in your organization is sometimes required and absolutely necessary. But, in most organizations if you can find someone that has excellent interpersonal skills and common sense, you can train them on the technical aspect of the position. As a manager in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s business arena, your interpersonal skills must be fine-tuned. MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy of Needs is now falling into play with employees and managers decisions. Ã¢â¬Å"Proper management of the work lives of human beings, of the way in which they earn their living, can improve them and improve the world and in this sense be a utopian or revolutionaryShow MoreRelatedOrganizational Behavior Importance1772 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesOrganizational Behavior Importance Organizational behavior is the study of how organizations can be structures more effectively, and how several events in their outside situations effect organizations. Learning aboutÃ organizational behaviorÃ in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s business environment could help managers build up a better work related understanding of themselves and their subsidiary. With this knowledge managers can achieve a successful career. Since a manager needs to get his job done by the others, to haveRead MoreImportance of Organizational Behavior Essay798 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Importance of Organizational Behavior In any organization one can assume that the main goal of that business is to succeed; what exactly does being a winning organization mean and what does it take to get there? In the past companies placed a great amount of emphasis on the numbers and how to achieve those numbers. The people who actually helped achieve those numbers were graded on their technical skills, productivity, and budgets. Employees were moneymaking machines and how they achievedRead MoreImportance of Values and Organizational Behavior692 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesvalues are important. Obtaining a clear definition as to what values are varies from person to person. According to the paper values are the things that matter most to an individual (Posner, amp; Munson, 1979). Values are crucial to understanding behavior. 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The positive outcomes from conflict managementRead MoreDoc, Docx, Pdf1631 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesContents Organizational justice: 1 1: Distributive justice: 1 2: procedural justice: 2 3 interactional justice: 2 Importance of organizational justice: 2 CONDITIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE IN PAKISTAN 3 Organizational citizenship behavior: 3 Definition and concept: 3 Kinds of organizational citizenship Behavior: 3 Altruism: 3 Conscientiousness: 4 Civic virtue: 4 Importance of organization citizenship behavior: 4 Organizational justice: Organizational justice showsRead MoreUnderstanding Human Behavior1257 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Understanding Human Behavior: As a critical aspect for many organizations, the study of human behavior and the interactions between people and the organization is usually described as organizational behavior since its mainly geared towards understanding and forecasting human behavior. For organizational leaders, understanding human behavior is a critical skill that has direct impacts on the success of the organization. Therefore, the ability of an organizational leader to be successful is closelyRead MoreProcedural Justice And Job Satisfaction Of Nursing Employees1523 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages outcome. According to the write-up, Ã¢â¬Å"procedural justice and job satisfaction of nursing employees are positively and significantly related to their innovative behaviorÃ¢â¬ (Xerri, 2014, p.4), and Ã¢â¬Å"interactional justice directly affects job satisfaction and indirectly affects innovative behavior through job satisfactionÃ¢â¬ (Xerri, 2014, p.4). In other words, an organization that engages in practical apprehensions reaps perfected job satisfaction, which in turn has a bearing on workplace attitudes. To
| | | Assessing Business- IT Alignment| Rosa Kemper Cohort 27 Dr. K. Cousins February 17, 2013 Table of Contents I Ã¢â¬â Executive Summary/Overview Baptist Hospital a) Mission Statement b) Vision statement II. We will write a custom essay sample on 7-Eleven Japan Business Domain or any similar topic only for you Order Now Information Technology: a) Mission Statement b) Vision Statement III. The Business As-Is: Business Scope and Value Discipline IV. Information Technology AS-IS: IT Infrastructure and Scope of Business V. Assessing Business Strategic Alignment and Maturity: IT To-Be Business To-be VI. Evaluation of Strategic Alignment Maturity Assessment: LuftmanÃ¢â¬â¢s SAM Survey Part I: Effectiveness of IT and Business communications (Score 2. 8) Part II: Measurement of the competency and value of IT Score (Score 2. 93) Part III: The governance Partnerships between IT and Business Functions (Score 2. 41) Part IV: Partnerships between IT and Business functions (Score 2. 31) Part V: Scope and Architecture of the IT Infrastructure (Score 2. 67) Part VI. Human resource skills (2. 56) VII. Recommendation to address gaps in the alignment VIII. Strategic Alignment Enablers IX. Strategic Alignment Inhibitors I Ã¢â¬â Executive Summary/Overview: Baptist Health South Florida, Inc. a not-for-profit health care organization, operates medical plazas, surgical facilities, and hospitals. It offers addiction treatment, behavioral medicine, blood conservation program, cancer, cardiovascular, care and counseling, childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s health, community wellness, critical care center, diabetes, emergency, endoscopy, executive health, gamma knife center, heart surgery, home care, hyperbaric, imaging, intensive care unit, international, interventional/surgical, laboratory, neonatal, neuroscience, and nutrition counseling services. The company also provides occupational health, orthopedics, outpatient/diagnostic, pain center, pastoral care, pediatric, pelÃ¢â¬ ¦ Baptist Health South Florida (BHSF) is the largest faith-based, not-for-profit health care organization in the area. It has an exceptional reputation for medical and service excellence. Baptist Health South Florida, Inc. was formerly known as Baptist Health Systems of South Florida, Inc. and changed its name to Baptist Health South Florida, Inc. in March 2002. The company was founded in 1990 and is headquartered in Coral Gables, Florida. It has a network of seven hospitals, Baptist, Baptist ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s, South Miami, Homestead, Mariners and Doctors Hospitals, and Baptist Cardiac Vascular Institute, with services extending throughout Miami-Dade and Monroe Counties. There are a total of 28 Baptist Outpatient Services Facilities and Medical Plazas which provide outpatient diagnostic, surgical, home health and urgent care services. Specialty areas are: Cancer, Cardiovascular, ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Health, Diabetes, Gamma Knife, Diagnostic, Childbirth, Rehabilitation, Senior Services, WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Health, and Urgent Care. Baptist Health serves more than 100,000 people each year. Approximately 2,000 physicians and nearly 12,000 employees adhere to the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission to provide high-quality, cost-effective, compassionate healthcare services to all, including, as permitted by its resources, charity care to those in need. In 2007, Baptist Health provided an estimated $124 million in charity care. The Baptist Healthcare International Center of Miami is one of the largest hospital-based international programs in America. Thousands of people each year travel to Miami from around the world to visit their medical facilities and respected physicians. The pineapple logo is an age-old symbol of hospitality and warmth. It is reflected in their customer and patient-oriented focus. Baptist Health was created in 1990, but its tradition of medical excellence goes back decades. Baptist Hospital Baptist Hospital is a 680-bed facility located in the Kendall area of south Miami-Dade County. It was founded in 1960. Today, the hospital is a major medical center, attracting patients from all over the U. S. , the Caribbean, Latin America and beyond. More than 32,000 people are hospitalized at Baptist each year; about 78,000 receive emergency care in our 24-hour Emergency Center and ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Emergency Center. Mission Statement The mission of Baptist Health is to improve the health and well-being of individuals, and to promote the sanctity and preservation of life, in the communities we serve. Baptist Health is a faith-based organization guided by the spirit of Jesus Christ and the Judeo-Christian ethic. We are committed to maintaining the highest standards of clinical and service excellence, rooted in the utmost integrity and moral practice. Consistent with its spiritual foundation, Baptist Health is dedicated to providing high-quality, cost-effective, compassionate healthcare services to all, regardless of eligion, creed, race or national origin, including, as permitted by its resources, charity care to those in needÃ¢â¬ . Vision statement Ã¢â¬Å"Baptist Health will be the preeminent healthcare provider in the communities we serve, the organization that people instinctively turn to for their healthcare needs. Baptist Health will offer a broad range of clinical services that are evidence-based and compassionately provided to ensure patient safety, superior clinical outcomes and the highest levels of satisfaction with a patient- and family-centered focus. Baptist Health will be a national and international leader in healthcare innovationÃ¢â¬ . II. Information Technology: Mission Statement Ã¢â¬Å"To support the BHSF vision by providing the highest quality technology solutions to our customers in an efficient and cost effective mannerÃ¢â¬ . Vision Statement Ã¢â¬Å"Fully leverage our technology capabilities to provide meaningful information anywhere, anytime to our physicians, clinicians, patients, and employees in a secured and user friendly manner. In order to meet this goal, we will continue to implement advanced technologies such as wireless networking, multi-media telecommunications, digitized imaging, and web-based clinical and business applications throughout BHSFÃ¢â¬ . III. The Business As-Is: Business Scope and Value Discipline The organization has created a new delivery of care model built on a value-based strategy. The employment of advanced technology strategies with state of the art web based applications, complex data security platforms and data monitoring offers a wide variety of technology resources made available to the participants in the delivery of care. The highly efficient and widely accessible web and smartphone application for consumer speaks of the Value Discipline and Product Innovation aimed at benchmarking and incentivizing customer satisfaction, care coordination, and total care management. Moreover, the emphasis on technology leadership positions the business as a frontrunner in the marketplace thus cultivating a distinguishable loyal culture among its customers as a niche. Customer satisfaction is primarily what gives the company its competitive edge. The overall goals are to improve individual patient care, improve overall performance, minimize risks and decrease medical costs. The matrix style management ensures that interdisciplinary membership actively reflects on decisions affecting the overall organization. Innovation is a constant on all aspects of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s dynamic strategy creating an agile and successful business. Whether in technology being applied, products and services, etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ strong partnerships are created with other organizations in order to distinguish itself in the hyper competitive market. As an example recently BHSF has announced a newly formed Accountable Care Organization (ACO) alliance with BCBS to meet the needs of cancer patients in response to the changing environment and the Ã¢â¬Å"ageÃ¢â¬ of the Affordable Care initiative. (1) IV. Information Technology AS-IS: IT Infrastructure and Scope of Business Scope of Business Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"The Information Technology Department provides computer support and implementation services for all BHSF entities including the BHSF Medical Staff. Computer support and implementation services include the appropriate levels of hardware, application, network, telecommunications, operating system, media and telemedicine support required to maintain operationsÃ¢â¬ . The goals and duties of the department are to contribute towards creating an efficient information exchange that can help in improving health outcomes and lowering delivery costs. To identify educational needs with regard to training existing workforce and future workforce in the information technology healthcare environment. Compliance efforts pushed the department towards the a) centralization of management, b) auditing and c) reporting tools. V. Assessing Business Strategic Alignment and Maturity: IT To-Be Baptist Health prides itself on its health care competences and outstanding reputation. The IT department effectively participates in functional level in the decision process and overall structure of the business and project requirements. The IT infrastructure is well integrated throughout the organization and effort and cooperation between the business and IT exists in moderate alignment. This partnership helps maximize the goals of the organization. Emphasis on bringing their own internal IT operations up to speed and using their internal personnel resources is part of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s priorities. To validate this observation some examples may shed some light into concerns of processes management, efficiency and standardization that presented potential catastrophe for the business but were appropriately and positively addressed. The IT system had become outdated and cumbersome. The business and IT collaboratively reached out to an outside consultant to streamline its IT process and improve the perceived value to the business. There were many options on how and where to enter time, so time was often omitted. There was no centralized data warehouse. Project database inaccuracies were updated irregularly. There was no reporting tool for IT resource expenditures, which made establishing the value-add of technology difficult. Finding details on current projects- because there was no consistent reporting process in place- was challenging for managers. Managing work demand and outcomes was nearly impossible. Ã¢â¬Å"The project database gave the level of detail needed for improved project management but the centralized time tracking database has improved efficiencies for resource management as well. Using Planview Enterprise, we have better management, prioritization, and review of project requests. This improved business efficiency assures accurate and timely service delivery to our customers. Ã¢â¬ (2) Baptist Health also evaluated many resources and criteria to implement the Oracle Identity Analytics (OIA) as the solution to maintain its roles and place the foundation for automated role governance. BHSF employed Simeo Solutions as a Ã¢â¬Å"trustedÃ¢â¬ advisor to build the strategy to seamlessly transition the roles into an electronic repository and also build the roadmap for role attestations and role lifecycle managementÃ¢â¬ . (3) The IT department has a high degree of participation in aligning itself with the business structure and on the hands-on implementation of projects that support the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy and strategic plans. The have value and the respect they need to maintain the organizational support. However, decision making process on the organizational level rests on the board of directors and upper level business management. Business To-be Business processes and workflows are generally communicated based on expectations about technology, people and organizational goals that can become obsolete over time. Companies finally must reengineer their processes. Key to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success is analyzing and implementing sustainable processes. Baptist Health has a well-thought-out approach to solution strategy by utilizing top leaders in the industry as consultants in the areas of: a) operational efficiency, b) regulatory compliance, c) user productivity and e) business agility. The internal IT infrastructure serves fundamentally in an educational and supportive role as well as the launching platform to implementation of the developing framework. The maturity of the alignment appears to be an established and focused process. VI. Evaluation of Strategic Alignment Maturity Assessment: LuftmanÃ¢â¬â¢s SAM Survey The purpose of this case study is to demonstrate the level of alignment that exists between IT and the business within this organization and to point out what, why and how strategic deficiencies pertaining to the alignment or lack thereof were resolved. As a tool, the LuftmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Strategic Alignment Model (SAM) Survey (4) was administered to two IT and two business Mid-Management level executives at Baptist Hospital, one of the largest facilities in the BHSF system. The results validate the intra-organizational limitations that may exist in the relationship between the business and the IT department but portray a dynamic institution striving to align itself while creating a competitive advantage and differentiating itself as a leader in the healthcare market. The organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic alignment is measured by focusing on six aspects of the organization. These six aspects are what provide the different criteria for determining the maturity of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s alignment. The six categories are: 1. Effectiveness of Communications 2. Measurement of Competency and Value of IT 3. IT Governance 4. Partnerships Between Business and IT Functions 5. IT Infrastructure Scope and Architecture 6. IT Infrastructure Scope and Architecture Part I: Effectiveness of IT and Business Communications (Score 2. 88) Senior and Mid-level It mangers work together to seek and promote innovation and cutting edge products in the changing healthcare environment. Communication exists in the form of weekly formal meetings that address emerging processes and projects. Unit business and IT managers are encouraged to promote IT integration in the business process and senior level business managers have a good understanding of the value that IT brings to BHSF. They work in tandem to continue improvement of the internal IT infrastructure by bringing in external sources as advisors, continuous training for management level as well as workforce level members. The phone-mail and the intranet are integrated into the daily operations and used as the main form for communication and Intranet is also applied for educational purposes. There is structured sharing of information at the unit level that is in turn shared with upper level management at formal board meetings. Part II: Measurement of the Competency and Value of IT Score (Score 2. 93) Both business and IT use formal traditional technical and cost efficiency measures to determine the return on investment (ROI) and activity-based costing (ABC) per survey data. As described earlier the continuous innovation in technology that is implemented across the organization, be it in the delivery of care, documentation applications, medical procedures, management tools and entire IT infrastructure that makes up the fabric of the organization in itself, serve as a guide of how BHSF distinguishes itself in the regional industry. Competencies are measured by metrics. Feedback is obtained in the form of surveys administered to clients and used point out areas for potential improvement and overall customer satisfaction. Part III: The Governance Partnerships between IT and Business Functions (Score 2. 41) Strategic planning is done at the functional unit level with some business involvement. Because of the support and collaboration that IT provides for the organization, there is an understood interdependency. The governance of the IT department is mostly centralized and it controls its own infrastructure. Planning occurs in the functional unit level and in some degree intra-organizationally Ã¢â¬â as demonstrated in the examples mentioned above where the IT department played a key role in restructuring the then-deficient and outdated process. Part IV: Partnerships Between IT and Business Functions (Score 2. 31) Because the partnership that exists between the IT and the business, better management, prioritization, and review of project requests is achieved across the company. This improved business efficiency assures accurate and timely service delivery to customers. Project Performance that IT delivers is a key resource in providing services and sound business outcomes and assists in measuring the performance of the company. Part V: Scope and Architecture of the IT Infrastructure (Score 2. 7) The IT department function is mostly Federated in that the corporate IT Unit administers the responsibility of the architecture, the administrative systems and standardized decisions but authority for resources applications lies with each functional unit. IT is budgeted as a cost center and financial decisions regarding IT are done at a functional organizational level. The productivity and effectiveness that the IT department brings to the organization is viewed as a strategy enabler and is subject to traditional financial reviews. The IT steering committee meets as needed but also formally to recap the effectives of project implementation and metrics. Part VI. Human resource skills (2. 56) By using one centralized project data base the BHSF IT organization is able to manage its employee payroll systems and administrative functions in a seamless manner. Career cross-over, education and entrepreneurial innovation is strongly encouraged in the organization. The in-depth knowledge of these individuals assists with the alignment of the functional units and the overall business and helps decipher the needs of the enterprise. Trust and confidence among business and IT is an enabler for the corporation. It fosters a positive social and political, productive and efficient work environment that promotes employee participation and loyalty. It is perhaps the vital element that makes BHSF a successful corporation. VII. Recommendation to address gaps in the alignment The web-based platform is compatible with all other current IT systems and will improve the efficiency and accuracy of reporting throughout the company. Some of the ways that this technology will achieve its desired results are: Plan | Goals/Objectives| Outcomes| Management Planfor Information Management| Improve record keeping and information | IT Project will allow for real-time information and data entry, increased information accuracy, and a consolidated source for all payroll and administrative data| Consulting for Information Management| Utilize new technology to support company and department missions more effectively| New technology will allow many payroll and administrative functions to be automated reducing the levels of staff required to manage these systems| Continuous collaborative efforts from the IT department and the employment of consulting firms to advise and formulate a more centralized administrative platform will enabled BHSF to manage its employee payroll systems and administrative functions in a consolidated efficient manner. Another enabler is the technology implemented that has already proven to reduce overhead costs associated with the large workforce currently required to manage tasks, training, reporting, and various other administrative tasks. In the long run the company will also benefit from more timely and accurate financial reporting as a result of managersÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to enter and continuously update their financial metrics. The cost is justified by the benefit. Sharing of risks and rewards in projects will improve the business and help move the company forward to the next level of maturity. VIII. Strategic Alignment Enablers: * Senior executives support IT and use outside resources to augment performance. * IT involved in strategy development to moderate extent. There is Business- It partnership with a common goal to benefit the corporation IX. Strategic Alignment Inhibitors * There is a close relationship between IT and Business. * IT understands the business better than the business understands IT. * Projects are prioritized however change is moderately slow. Management is working on Changing this culture. Bibliography: 1) http://hcafnews. com/tag/Baptist-health-south-florida/ Florida Blue, Baptist Health and P hysicians Group to Set Up Accountable Care Organization in Miami. 2) http://search. aol. com/aol/search? s_it=topsearchbox. earchv_t=comsearch51-txtlnkusaolp00000051q=case+study+baptist+healthcare+south+florida+planview Ã¢â¬â Project management Gets a Shot in the Arm at Baptist Health Ã¢â¬â Business Technology Consultant and Planview Enterprise Administrator Baptist Health South Florida Diane Novas. 3) http:// www. simeiosolutions. com/Baptist-health-south-florida/ Ã¢â¬â Baptist Health South Florida Implements Oracle Identity Analysis for Role Lifecycle Management 4) Assessing Business-IT Alignment Maturity. Volume 4, Article 14, Dec 2000. Jerry Luftman, School of Management, Stevens Institure of Technology. How to cite 7-Eleven Japan Business Domain, Papers
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Abstract The goal of VPNs is to provide a cost-effective and secure way to connect business to one another and remote workers to office networks. Network Security Protocols encompasses the basis for safe amp; reliable data transfer. These security devices should be able to provide accountability, access control, confidentiality, integrity, while all the time being cost effective. This provides us with different security protocols related to the transfer of data through a network. With a prevalent system of networks the frontier for world data communication, it is absolutely critical to be able to have these protocols provide the most secure service possible. In this report technical review IPSec protocol involved with Network Security. Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) It is a suite of protocol for securing IP communications by authentication and encryption of each IP packet of a communication session. IPSec also includes protocols for establishing mutual authentication between agents at the beginning of the session and negotiating cryptography keys which is to be used during the session. We will write a custom essay sample on Vpn with Ipsec or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page IPSec is an end to end security scheme operating in the Layer of Internet of the IP suite. It can be used in protecting data flows between a pair of hosts, between a pair of security gateways, or between a security gateway and a host. 2. Introduction to VPN A VPN is a virtual private network, which is built on top of existing physical network that can provide a secure communication mechanism for data and other information transmitted between networks. Because VPN can be used over existing networks, such as the Internet, it can facilitate the secure transfer of sensitive data across public networks. This is often less expensive than alternatives such as dedicated private telecommunications lines between organizations or branch offices. VPNs can also provide flexible solutions, such as securing communications between remote telecommuters and the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s servers, regardless of where the telecommuters are located. A VPN can even be established within a single network to protect particularly sensitive communications from other parties on the same network. It is important to understand that VPNs do not remove all risk from networking. While VPNs can greatly reduce risk, particularly for communications that occur over public networks, they cannot remove all risk for such communications. One problem is the strength of the implementation. For example, flaws in an encryption algorithm or the software implementing the algorithm could allow attackers to decrypt intercepted traffic; random number generators that do not produce sufficiently random values could provide additional attack possibilities. Another issue is encryption key disclosure; an attacker who discovers a key could not only decrypt traffic but potentially also poses as a legitimate user. Another area of risk involves availability. A common model for information assurance is based on the concepts of confidential, integrity, and availability. Although VPNs are designed to support confidentiality and integrity, they generally do not improve availability, the ability for authorized users to access systems as needed. In fact, many VPN implementations actually tend to decrease availability somewhat, because they add more components and services to the existing network infrastructure. This is highly dependent upon the chosen VPN architecture model and the details of the implementation. 3. 1 VPN Technologies The Internet is a shared public network of networks with open transmission protocols. Therefore, VPNs must include measures for packet encapsulation (tunneling), encryption, and authentication to ensure that sensitive data reaches its destination without modifying by unauthorized parties. Fig: IP Packet 2. 2 Tunnels The thing that makes a Virtual Private Network Ã¢â¬Å"virtually privateÃ¢â¬ is known as tunnel. Even though you access your network via Internet, youÃ¢â¬â¢re not really Ã¢â¬Å"onÃ¢â¬ the Internet, you are actually Ã¢â¬Å"onÃ¢â¬ your company network. Although the term Ã¢â¬Å"tunnelÃ¢â¬ feels like itÃ¢â¬â¢s describing a fixed path through the Internet, this is not the case. There are some enterprises out there going even higher. Even the fastest computers today would need extended time to crack a code that is complex. You might be tempted to make a policy of always using the highest-bit encryption method available, but keep in mind that processing such complicated cipher-text will require significant, dedicated CPU processing power. There are other ways to use keys to the outmost security to fit your needs. For example, it does, indeed, take time to crack the higher-bit keys. If you establish a policy of periodically changing your keys, the trespassers wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to keep up. . 4. 1 Symmetrical Keys Symmetrical keys means the same key is used at each end of the tunnel to encrypt and decrypt information. Because a symmetrical key is being shared by both parties, there must be an understanding between the two to take appropriate steps to keep the key secret, which is why symmetrical keys are often referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"shared secrets. Ã¢â¬ The se keys become more difficult to distribute, since they must be kept confidential. A technique called Ã¢â¬Å"key splittingÃ¢â¬ may be employed to reduce the potential of key disclosure during transit. This allows participants to use public channels such as the Internet. More commonly, however, distribution of symmetrical keys is more of a manual operation using paper, removable media, or hardware docking. 2. 4. 2 Asymmetrical Keys Asymmetrical keys are slightly more complicated, but, logistically, much easier to manage. Asymmetrical keys allow information to be encrypted with one key and decrypted with a different key. The two keys used in this scenario are referred to as private and public keys, or the ones you keep to yourself and the ones you distribute to your remote users. Consider this example: LetÃ¢â¬â¢s call our business FQT and HIQT. FQT has a set of two keys, a public key and a private key. His public key has been programmed to encrypt data so that only his own private key can decipher it. In order to communicate securely, FQT hands his public key to HIQT and tells him to encrypt anything he sends with that code. Using this asymmetrical keying method, both are assured that only FQT will be able to read those transmissions because he retains the private decoder key. If the communication is to be bi-directional, HIQT would share his public key with FQT in the same manner. . 5 Key Management Configuring pre-shared secrets in smaller VPNs does not necessarily require software automation or large infrastructure investments. However, larger networks might benefit from deploying a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) to create, distribute, and track digital certificates on individual-user basis. You can use pre-shared keys or digital signatures if your equi pment supports these authentication alternatives. However, if you decide to use certificates, there are options. For example, you may use third-party Certificate Authority services. Or, you may build your own Certificate Authority using software from Entrust, Xcert, or Baltimore Technologies. Either option will help you establish a comprehensive PKI, which is especially useful in large organizations needed to extend secure, limited network access beyond their own internal users to business partners and customers. 2. 6 Authentication The last bit of housekeeping involved in VPN transmission is authentication. At this step, recipients of data can determine if the sender is really who he says he is (User/System Authentication) and if the data was redirected or corrupted enroute (Data Authentication). . 6. 1 User/System Authentication Consider, again, our two business named FQT and HIQT. When FQT receives a message signed from HIQT, FQT picks a random number and encrypts it using a key which only HIQT should be able to decode. HIQT then decrypts the random number and re-encrypts it using a key only QT should be able to decode. When FQT gets his number back, he can b e assured it is really IQT on the other end. 2. 6. 2 Data Authentication In order to verify that data packets have arrived unaltered, VPN systems often use a technique involving Ã¢â¬Å"hash functions. A hash function creates a sort of fingerprint of the original data. It calculates a unique number, called a hash, based on fixed or variable length values of unique bit strings. The sender attaches the number to the data packet before the encryption step. When the recipient receives the data and decrypts it, he can calculate his own hash independently. The output of his calculation is compared to the stored value appended by the sender. If the two hashes do not match, the recipient can be able to assume the data has been altered. 3. VPN Protocols used for tunneling 3. 1 IPSec IPSec is a standard for secure encrypted communication that provides two security methods: Authenticated Headers (AH) and Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP). AH is used to authenticate packets, whereas ESP encrypts the data portion of packets. It can work in two different modes: transport mode and tunnel mode. IPSec is commonly combined with IKE as a means of using public key cryptography to encrypt data between LANs or between a client and a LAN. IKE provides for the exchange of public and private keys. 3. 2 PPP In networking, the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is commonly used in establishing a direct connection between two networking nodes. It can provide connection authentication, transmission encryption, and compression. 3. 3 L2TP Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is an extension of the long protocol used to establish dial-up connections on the Internet, Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP). L2TP uses IPSec rather than MPPE to encrypt data sent over PPP. 3. 4 PPTP Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is commonly used by remote users who need to connect to a network using a dial-in connection of modem. PPTP uses Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption (MPPE) to encrypt data that passes between the remote computer and the remote access server. 3 Technical Review of IPSec over VPN 4. 1 IPSec IPSec is the Internet standard protocol for tunneling, encryption, and authentication. It was designed to protect network traffic by addressing basic usage issues including:- Ã¢â¬ ¢ Access control Ã¢â¬ ¢ Connection integrity Ã¢â¬ ¢ Authentication of data origin Ã¢â¬ ¢ Protection against replays Ã¢â¬ ¢ Traffic flow confidentiality The IPSec protocol allows two operational modes. In Transport mode, everything behind the packet and not including the IP header is protected. In Tunnel mode, everything behind and including the header is protected, requiring a new pseudo IP header. While the IPSec protocol was under development, two other protocols Ã¢â¬â L2TP and PPTP used as temporary solutions. L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) encloses non-Internet protocols such as IPX, SNA, and AppleTalk inside an IP envelope. However, L2TP has to rely on other protocols for encryption functions. PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) is a proprietary Microsoft encryption and authentication protocol. Although originally developed as a temporary solution, Microsoft continues to deploy L2TP as its tunneling protocol instead of IPSec tunneling. When comparing the three, IPSec is, the most widely used protocol, and the only one that addresses future VPN environments (such as new IP protocols). 4. 1. 2 IPSec Architecture The architecture of the IPSec implementation refers to the selection of device and software to provide IPSec services and the placement of IPSec endpoints within the existing network infrastructure. These two considerations are often closely tied together; For example, a decision could be made to use the existing Internet firewall as the IPSec gateway. This section will explore three particular aspects of IPSec architecture:- gateway placement, IPSec client software for hosts, and host address space management. Fig: Gateway-to-Gateway VPN for Remote Office Connectivity 4. 1. 3 IPSec Functions Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) has emerged as the most commonly used network layer security control for protecting communications. IPSec is a framework of open standards for ensuring private communications over IP networks. Depending on how IPSec is implemented and configured, it can provide any combination of the following types of protection: Confidentiality. IPSec can ensure that data cannot be read by unknown parties. This is accomplished by encrypting data using a cryptographic algorithm and a secret key. A value known only to the two parties exchanging data. The data can only be decrypted by someone who has the secret key. Integrity. IPSec can determine if data has been changed (intentionally or unintentionally) during transit. The integrity of data can be assured by enerating a message authentication code (MAC) value, which is a cryptographic checking sum of the data. If the data is altered and the MAC is recalculated, the old and new MACs will be different. Peer Authentication. Each IPSec endpoint confirms the identity of the other IPSec endpoint with which it wishes to communicate, ensuring that the network traffic and data is being sent from the expected host. Replay Protection. The same data is not delivered multiple times, and data is not delivered grossly out of order. However, IPSec does not ensure that data is delivered in the exact order in which it is sent. Traffic Analysis and Protection. A person monitoring network traffic does not know which parties are communicating, how often communications are occurring, or how much data is being exchanged. However, the number of packets being exchanged can be counted. Access Control. IPSec endpoints can perform filtering to ensure that only authorized IPSec users can access particular network resources. IPSec endpoints can also allow or block certain types of network traffic, such as allowing Web server access but denying file sharing. 4. 1. 4 IPSec Fundamentals IPSec is a collection of protocols that assist in protecting communications over IP networks. IPSec protocols work together in various combinations to provide protection for communications. The three primary components of the IPSec protocol that provides the protections for the communication are ESP, AH and IKE. Encapsulating security Payload (ESP) ESP is the second core IPSec security protocol. In the initial version of IPSec, ESP provided only encryption for packet payload data. It can perform authentication to provide integrity protection, although not for the outermost IP header. Also, ESP. s encryption can be disabled through the Null ESP Encryption Algorithm. Therefore, in all but the oldest IPSec implementations, ESP can be used to provide only encryption; encryption and integrity protection; or only integrity protection Authentication Header (AH) AH, one of the IPSec security protocols provides integrity protection for packet headers and data, as well as user authentication. It can optionally provide replay protection and access protection. AH cannot encrypt any portion of packets. In the initial version of IPSec, the ESP protocol could provide only encryption, not authentication, so AH and ESP were often used together to provide both confidentiality and integrity protection for communications. Because authentication capabilities were added to ESP in the second version of IPSec AH has become less significant; in fact, some IPSec software no longer supports AH. However, AH is still valuable because AH can authenticate portions of packets that ESP cannot. Internet Key Exchange (IKE) The purpose of the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol is to negotiate, create, and manage security associations. Security association is a generic term for a set of values that define the IPSec features and protections applied to a connection. It can also be manually created, using values agreed upon in advance by both parties, but these security associations cannot be updated; this method does not scale for a real-life large-scale VPNs. In IPSec, IKE is used to provide a secure mechanism for establishing IPSec-protected connections. 4. 1. 5 IPSec Protocol Basics Transport mode is used to provide secure communications between hosts over any range of IP addresses. Tunnel mode is used to create secure links between two private networks. Tunnel mode is the obvious choice for VPNs; however, there are some concerns about using tunnel mode in a client-to-site VPN because the IPSec protocol by itself does not provide for user authentication. However, when combined with an authentication system like Kerberos, IPSec can authenticate users. 4. 1. 6 Cryptography Used in IPSec Sessions Cryptography policy involves choosing encryption and integrity protection algorithms and key lengths. Most IPSec implementations offer the HMAC-MD5 and HMAC-SHA-1 hashing algorithms. Neither of these algorithms is computationally intensive. Although both plain MD5 and plain SHA-1 have known weaknesses, both are still considered sufficiently secure in their HMAC versions. In some implementations of IPSec, the cryptography policy settings are not immediately apparent to admin. The default settings for encryption and integrity protection, as well as the details of each setting, are often located down several levels of menus or are split among multiple locations. It is also challenging with some implementations to alter the settings once they have been located. . 1. 7 Authentication Used for Identifying IPSec IPSec implementations typically support two authentication methods: pre-shared keys and digital signatures. To use pre-shared keys, the IPSec admin creates a key or password string, which is then configured in each IPSec device. Pre-shared keys are the simplest authentication method to implement, but key management is challenging. Because of scalability and secu rity concerns, pre-shared key authentication is generally an acceptable solution only for small-scale implementations with known IP addresses or small IP address ranges. In the digital signature method, a certificate identifies each device, and each device is configured to use certificates. Two IPSec endpoints will trust each other if a Certification Authority (CA) that they both trust has signed their certificates. Many organizations are currently implementing public key infrastructures (PKI) for managing certificates for IPSec VPNs and other applications such as secure e-mail and Web access. 5. Conclusion VPNs allow users or corporations to connect to remote servers, branch offices, or to other companies over internetwork of public, while maintaining secure communications.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
What Can You Do With a Philosophy Degree Why study Philosophy? Many students see no reasons for obtaining a degree in this subject. They associate this science with something outdated and unpromising. In fact, Philosophy is not a science. We would rather say that itÃ¢â¬â¢s art. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an art of telling the truth to people so that it makes them think. It is an art of discussing our life values in a special manner. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an art of making other people hear you. Such skills are required in many professional fields. Thus, once you graduate from your university with a Philosophy degree, donÃ¢â¬â¢t worry about your profession. Most university graduates wish to work in the field of business or IT as these are two most promising directions for the future. Business and technologies are closely related, but many graduates ignore the fact that Philosophy is connected with business too. This discipline and advertising are a partnership made in heaven. So, we can say that Marketing, for instance, cannot survive without good knowledge of humanities, especially philosophy and psychology. Business majors believe that Marketing is a philosophy of selling. Any prestigious business university like Harvard Business School dedicates enough attention to studying issues in philosophy, even though they may not have it as a separate subject. In the age of unemployment, graduates fear to stay without well-paid careers. Fear not if you graduate with a Philosophy degree from your college or university! Such majors usually possess a unique set of skills developed over the course of their education that will pique the interest of the recruiters in many fields. A list of possible careers is much longer than you used to think. Also, you can read about other university majors and their opportunities. Find a Workplace Thanks to the Unique Set of Skills Research conducted by prospects.ac.uk found that Philosophy graduates are workingÃ Ã¢â¬Å"for almost every type of employer in public, private and not-for-profit sectors.Ã¢â¬ Ã Perhaps, the only place where you cannot work with your Philosophy degree only is Information Technologies (IT) as this field requires a solid knowledge of computer. All law, education, and business-related careers, including jobs in advertising, welcome university graduates with Philosophy degrees. It is much easier to work with the philosophy-trained mind from the very beginning than paying for the additional training in corresponding humanities school. So, what are those good skills that help Philosophy graduates win their dream careers? Analytical thinking:Ã Many careers today require advanced communication skills necessary to target proper audience as well as work in a team to come up with the mixed problem-solving experience. Philosophy degree guarantees perfect ability to evaluate any case objectively, study all existing opinions, conducting research to develop new and left-field ideas, and assuming the pros and cons of all options. Effective communication:Ã Graduates with Philosophy degrees in their pockets can answer any questions and share ideas in a concise and well-constructed way. No one would defend his personal point of view better than a Philosophy University graduate. Research and investigation:Ã Conducting in-depth research, placing and interpreting large amounts of information, and offering innovations are valuable skills for all types of careers possessed by the Philosophy degree holders. Moreover, such graduates are able to write down their thoughts in a well-organized manner. If you still have problems with writing experience, visit special websites which can help develop corresponding skills These are the arguments for employers to choose Philosophy degree owners to perform any careers. If you are about to graduate from your school, college, or university with a Philosophy degree, study your work opportunities below. Potential Careers for University Graduates with a Philosophy Degree Careers in Education As a rule, a position of a high school teacher is not the best option for the applicant with Philosophy degree. It is better to work as a university professor. University professors get paid much higher than school tutors. Besides, Philosophy is studied at the more advanced level when it comes to college or university. Teaching careers are perfect for graduates who like to communicate and write a lot. If you wish to share your knowledge and skills like critical thinking with the growing generation, teaching jobs are right for you. However, careers in education may require a professional teaching qualification, so you may want to take an extra course in university. Masters and Ph.D. degrees are preferred. Careers in Legal Environment Philosophy is closely related to the Law. These are two ancient sciences that have formed our community. Majors often join the field of law by choosing one of the possible legal careers (e.g. lawyer or advocate). You have to be able to investigate, conduct research, write legal documents, defend your arguments, and be aware of all legal issues with respect to the particular state. A philosophy degree is a good foundation for careers in law in case an applicant has also worked in the field of law. At least, extra training or education is a must because you still need to know the laws. Careers in Media Under media, we mean service like publishing rather than role play. Philosophy degree holders are effective in both preparing written materials and giving public speeches. Being a university graduate with a Philosophy foundation, you may want to work in the production of printed media such as books, newspapers, and more. Also, there are many opportunities for those who would like to write remotely. You can highlight any subject of your interest in the shape of blog posts. If you like to deal with research and write lengthy articles, careers in journalism may be your solution. Careers in Public Fields Every year, hundreds of thousand professional philosophers join public services. A Philosophy degree graduate feels comfortable when working for some government-issued organizations or medical services. If you would like to research various societal issues and propose your alternatives, public careers are good for you. Police and armed forces are hiring university graduates with Philosophy degrees on a regular basis as well. If you still think whether to study Philosophy or not, look at the life of at least one famous person with this degree: Bill Clinton, Rashida Jones, Ricky Gervais, Stone Phillips, and other university graduates who have chosen Philosophy degree. No matter if you want to join the business, education, or medical careers, Philosophy degree may be your lucky ticket! Ready to join? Order college or university admission essay from the professional writing service to get the place in short!
Monday, March 2, 2020
Term Paper Help Term Paper Help Term Paper Help Term paper help of high quality is rare today because most of the custom term paper writing sites hire inexperienced writers from poor countries.Ã As a result, you get a term paper of poor quality and full of mistakes. is a legal site offering professional paper writing service on any topic and within any deadline.Ã If you need term paper help, do not hesitate to take advantage of our custom term paper writing services! In addition, our term paper writing guide with tips and samples is absolutely free! Free Term Paper Sample All parents have ways of dealing with children and their behavior other than the physical laying on of hands. These comprise a variety of methods, many of which are identified in our case material. In four families, the customary device employed by the parents was to deprive the children of things or privileges which were much prized. This might mean the withholding of allowances, refusal of permission to play with the other children, absence from the movies, and the like. In ten families, the informants stressed the careful supervision and strict management by the parents, most often by the mother. Such management might be quite pervasive, to the point of being smothering, and was so described in several cases. The comments of the informants about their mothers in these cases are interesting. "She always knew what was going on." "She understood us better than we did ourselves." "Mother was a darned shrewd manager and manipulator." "Mother possessed that fortunate faculty of bringing about a desired result without seeming to use force or being possessive." Akin to the emphasis upon management were the references to the organizing abilities of one or both parents. Illustrative of this was a family with thirteen children. Here the parents stimulated active participation in school, church, and community activities, canalizing the energies of the entire family group in these directions. In addition, a strong sense of family pride was fostered, with the result that two informants from this family insisted that there had been no disciplinary problems in it. Child rearing in this case appears as incidental to the functioning of a well-organized family life. Emphasis upon a parent's capacity for leadership, expressed by the informants in eight families, is perhaps but another way of referring to the type of situation that has just been described. "My mother," writes a member of an intellectual family, "was not only an excellent manager and housekeeper, but she often was the leader in our activities and discussions. Mother was well read, she had a deep sense of understanding, about all kinds of things. True, she could be very critical of our friends, and several times forbade us to associate with persons we brought home. Yet withal, she had great confidence in us, and in turn we trusted her judgment. Term Paper Help Online: Custom Writing If you like the above term paper sample and need professional term paper help, do not hesitate to use our writing services. Our term paper writers are educated.Ã There is no term paper we cannot write!Ã There is no deadline we cannot meet!Ã All custom term papers are delivered with free plagiarism report!
Friday, February 14, 2020
Chinese Scroll Painting - Essay Example The Chinese vertical scroll is read like a script from top to down. At the top edge of the scroll a semi-circle wooden stave is attached and is used for hanging up. A massive bar fixed at the bottom edge of the painting makes rolling up smoother and faster. The roller is often decorated with the precious materials. It also gives the picture some rigidity when hanging on the wall. The ways of hanging as well as the materials and decorations vary from one period to the other. Hanging scrolls are about fifty centimetres in width and up to three meters in length. The form of the horizontal scroll offers greater opportunity to the artist since the extra pieces of silk or paper could be added while painting. The Chinese painters are not limited in space as the European ones. This is especially useful in painting of the mass scenes and landscapes. A horizontal scroll is composed of few scenes that are divided by the peaces of landscape, usually by a group of trees or mountains. The Chinese scroll has to be viewed from right to left and the viewed section should not exceed sixty centimeters at a time. The left hand unrolls the picture and the right one rolls it up. The beginning section of the scroll is usually left empty for the protective reason, the following section is meant for the title, and special sections of scroll serve as inscription panels. This particular way of reading influences the general composition of the painting. The hand scrolls were not meant to be permanently displayed.